سه رویکرد برای درک و طبقه‌بندی اختلال‌های روانی: ICD-11, DSM-5, RDoC

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

طبقه ­بندی اختلال­ های روانی از دیرباز در میان متخصصان سلامت روان، موضوعی مورد مناقشه بوده است. با وجود گسترش قابل ملاحظه­ ی دانش ما در این حوزه در نیم قرن گذشته، فهم اجزا و فرایندهای آن، همچنان ابتدایی است. در این مقاله سه نظام طبقه­ بندی اختلال­ های روانی توصیف می­ شود که هدف هر یک از آن­ ها برای درک و طبقه­ بندی اختلال­ ها با یکدیگر متفاوت است: دو کتابچه راهنمای عمده تشخیصی– راهنمای تشخیصی و آماری اختلالات روانی (DSM)، طبقه­ بندی بین­ المللی بیماری­ ها (ICD) و پروژه معیارهای دامنه تحقیق (RDoC) موسسه­ ی ملی سلامت روان ایالات متحده که با تاکید بر یکپارچگی تحقیقات علوم رفتاری و علوم اعصاب چهارچوبی برای درک عمیق اختلالات روانی ارائه کرده است. برای مقایسه این سه طبقه ­بندی از چهار موضوع کلیدی بهره گرفته شده است: سبب­شناسی، شامل علیت­ های متعدد اختلال روانی؛ طبقه­ بندی یا ابعاد، آیا پدیده ­های مربوطه طبقاتی مجزا هستند یا ابعادی؟؛ آستانه­ ها، که مرز بین اختلال و عدم اختلال را تعیین می ­کنند؛ و هم ­ابتلایی، که دربردارنده­ ی این واقعیت است که افراد مبتلا به بیماری روانی اغلب دارای نیازهای تشخیصی برای شرایط مختلف هستند. اگر چه این نظام­ ها دارای درجه­ های مختلف همپوشانی و ویژگی­ های متمایز هستند، هدف مشترک هر سه آن­ ها کاهش بار رنج ناشی از اختلالات روانی است به وسیله­ ی درک بهتر و طبقه­ب ندی مناسب آن­ ها است.

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