Volume 2, Number 4 (5-2011)                   CPAP 2011, 2(4): 31-40 | Back to browse issues page


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Golestani Bakht T. Study of effects of shock exposures on subsequent escape-avoidance conditioning learning by goldfish (Carassius Auratus). CPAP. 2011; 2 (4) :31-40
URL: http://cpap.shahed.ac.ir/article-1-718-en.html

Abstract:   (5139 Views)
Introduction: The aim of this experimental study is to determine the effects of inescapable shock exposures on subsequent escape-avoidance conditioning learning by goldfish (Carassius Auratus). Learned helplessness is a psychological condition in which a human being or an animal has learned to believe that it is helpless in a particular situation, even when it has the power to change its unpleasant or even harmful circumstance. Learned helplessness theory is the view that clinical depression and related mental illness result from a perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation (Seligman, 1975). Method: The goldfishes (N=50) with the length of about 5-6 cm each, were randomly assigned into two groups (experimental and control, n=25 in each group), and the experiment environment was an aquatic shuttle box measuring 70×40×30 cm which was designed by researcher. The gathered data were analyzed using the independent t-test. Results: There were significant differences between 2 groups considering 6 Learned helplessness indicators, mean number of voidance response (P <0/0001, t=9/54, df=48), mean number of trial to first avoidance response (P<0/0001, t=5/8, df=48), mean of escape time: (P<0/0001, t=12/70, df=48), mean number of escape response (P<0/0001, t=3/61, df=48), mean number of failure to escape from shock, (P<0/0001, t=14/6, df=48) and mean time of failure to escape from shock(P<0/0001, t=14/45, df=48). Conclusion: Based on the results of this experimental research, gold fish the same as other animals, shows learned helplessness, and prior shocks affects on escape-avoidance conditioning learning of gold fish.
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special

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