1- Goreishi, A. Shajari, Z. (2013). Substance Abuse among Students of Zanjan's Universities (Iran): A Knot of Today's Society.Addict Health; 5(1-2):66–72. 2- Dehghani, K. Zare, A. Dehghani, H. Sedghi, H. Movahhedpour, Z . (2010). [Prevalence and factors associated with drug abuse among students of Yazd University of Medical Sciences]. J ShaheedSadoughiUniv Med Sci; 18(3):164–9. 3- McCabe, SE. Morales, M. Cranford, JA. Delva, J. McPherson, MD. Boyd, CJ. (2007). Race/ethnicity and gender differences in drug use and abuse among college students. J EthnSubst Abuse; 6(2):75–95. 4-Chambers, R.A. Taylor, J.R. and Potenza, M.N. (2003). Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: A critical period of addiction vulnerability. American Journal of Psychiatry 160: 1041–1052. 5-Sawyer, SM. Aﬁﬁ, RA. Bearinger, L.H. Blakemore, SJ. Dick, B. Ezeh, AC. et al. (2012). Adolescence: a foundation for future health. Lancet;28(379):1630-40. 6-Bezuidenhout, F.J. (2008). (Ed.). A reader on selected social issues. 4th edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers: 131-141. 8-Simatwa, E. Odhong, S.O. Juma, S.L. Choka, G.M. (2014). Substance Abuse among Public Secondary School Students: Prevalence, Strategies and Challenges for Public Secondary School Managers in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu East Sub County. Educational Research, 5, 8, 315-330. 9-Mitchell, M.R. Potenza, M.N. (2014). Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity And Related Constructs. CurrBehavNeurosci Rep, 1, 1- 12. 11-Arab, A. (2015). The Relationship between Sensation Seeking and Risky Behaviors in Addicts. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 9, 5, 703-705. 12-Massah, O. HoseinSabet, F. Doostian, Y. A’zami, Y., Farhoudian, A. (2014). The Role of Sensation-Seeking and Coping Strategies in Predicting Addiction Potential among Students. Practice in clinical psychology, 2, 3, 173-180. 13-Srivastava, S. (2007). Tolerance of ambiguity and locus of control as moderators for work stress among private sector managers. Abhigyan. 25(2): 48-53. 14-Khanlou, N. & Wray, R. (2014). A whole community approach toward child and youth resilience promotion: A review of resilience literature. International Journal of Mental Health & Addictions, 12, 64-79. 16-Lazarus R. S. &Folkman, S. (1984 .(Stress, appraisal, and coping. New york: Springer. 18-Bond, F. W. Dryden, W. (2004). Handbook of Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO 19 8SQ, England. 19-Ball, S. A. (2004). Personality traits, disorders, and substance abuse. In R. M. Stelmack (Ed.), on the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman. New York: Pergamon. 20-Ball, S. A. (2005). Personality traits, problems, and disorders: Clinical applications to substance use disorders. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 84-102. 21-Litt, M.D. Kadden, R.M. Kabela-Cormier, E. &Petry, N.M. (2008). Individualized assessment and treatment program for alcohol dependence: results of an initial study to train coping skills. Addiction, 104,11,1837-1838. 22-Botvin, G.J. Dusenbury, L. Baker, E. James. R. & Ortiz, S. (1992). Smoking prevention among Buran minority youth: Assessing effect on outcome and mediating variable. Health Psychology, 11, 290-299. 26-Fife, B. L. Scott, L. L. Fineberg, N. S. Zwickl, B. F. (2008). Promoting adaptive coping by persons with HIV disease: evaluation of patient/partner intervention, odel. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 19(1):75-84. 27-Daigle, E, Beaver, K, M. Turner, M.G. (2010). Resiliency against victimization : results from the national longitudinal study of adolescent (38),(3), 329-337. 28-Wadsworth, A. Martha, E. (2008). Risk and resiliency: processes in ethnically diverse families in poverty, journal of family psychology, (22), and (3), 399-410. 29-Haddadi, p. Besharat, B. (2010).Resilience, vulnerability and mental health, procedia social and behavioral science ,(5),639-642. 30-Werner, E.E. (1992). The children of Kauai: resiliency and recovery in adolescence and adulthood. J. Adolesc. Health. 13, 262–68. 31-Garmezy, N. (1991). “Resilience in children’s adaptation to negative life events and stressed environments”, Pediatric Annals, vol. 20, 459–466. 32-Rutter, M. (1985). “Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder”, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 147, 598–611. 33-Wingo, A. P. Ressler, K. J. & Bradley, B. (2014). Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: A cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 51, 93-99. 34-Thomsen, K. (2002). Building resilient students: Integrating resiliency into what you already know and do. California: Crown. 37-Buckner, J.C. Mezzacappa, E. &Beardslee, W.R. (2003). Characteristics of resilient youths living in poverty: The role of self-regulatory processes. Development & Psychopathology, 15(1), 139-162. 38-Fredrickson, BL. Tugade, M.M. Waugh, C.E. & Larkin, GR. (2003). A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2002. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365-376. 39-Sugiura, Y. (2007). Responsibility to continue a thinking Worring ,Behaviour research and thrapy. 45 (7), 1619-1628. 40-Dugas. M & Savard, P. (2007).Can the components of a cognitive model predict the severity of disorders,38(2),169-178. 42-Frenkel-Brunswik, E. (1948). "A study of prejudice in children." Human relations, 1, 295-306. 43-Budner, S. (1962). "Intolerance of ambiguity as a personahty variable," Journal of Personality (30:1), pp 29-50. 44- Durheim. K. & Foster, D. (1998).Tolerance of ambiguity as a content specific construct, Personality and Individual Differences,22(5):741- 750. 45-Krain, A &Gotimer, K. (2007). Afunctional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of uncertainty in adolescents.Biological psychiatry article in press, 38(6), 347-356. 46-Furnham, A., & Marks, J. (2013). Tolerance of ambiguity: A review of the recent literature. Psychology, 4, 717-728. 47-Keinan, G. (1994). Effects of stress and tolerance of ambiguity on magical thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 48-55. 48-Sinha, R. (2008). Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1141, 105–130. 49- Weed, N. C, Butcher, J. N. McKenna, T. & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (1992). New measures for assessing alcohol and drug abuse with the MMPI-2: The APS and AAS. Journal of Personality Assessment, 582, 389-404. 54- Connor, L. & Davidson, M. (2003). An inventory for resilience construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 41-53. 55-Campbell-Sills, L. Stein, M. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. J Trauma Stress. 20:1019–28. 57-Endler, N.S. Parker, J.D.A. (1999). Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS): Manual. 2nded. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. 58-Rafnsson, F.D. Smari, J. Windle, M. Stephanie, A. Endler, N.S. (2006). Factor structure and psychometric characteristics of the Icelandic version of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). Pers Individ Dif.; 40(6):47 62-simons, S. carvey, B. (2005). Attitudes toward marijuana use and drug. Free experience. Elsevier.16 (2). 63-MacDonald, A.P. (1970). Revised scale for ambiguity tolerance: Reliability and validity. PsychologicalReports. (26): 791-798. 64- Brown, C. Winne, D. (2002). The adult sensory profile: measuring patterns of sensory processing. American Journal of Occupational Therapy; 55(3): 75-82 66-Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.